Laws overturned the 1985 Weights and Measures Act allowing pounds and ounces by
creating a new system of "constitutional" Acts. Under this new system of law,
the earlier 1972 European Communities Act, requiring metric, was said by Lord
Justice Laws to take precedence over the later 1985 Act because it was a
challenged this judgement by using it against the Government's interests. Thus,
BWMA/MMDF have identified other old Acts, described by Lord Justice Laws as
"constitutional", that conflict with current laws required by the Government
for revenue collecting. Such laws include the 1991 and 1994 Road Traffic Acts
that allow public authorities to impose parking fines without allowing Court
appeals, instead relying on administrative appeal processes.
fines conflict with the Bill of Rights 1689, declared by Lord Justice Laws to
be a "constitutional" Act, which says: "... all grants and promises of fines
and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void".
In other words, a system of parking fines that does not allow recourse to the
courts is unlawful.
The effect of
the BWMA/MMDF campaign is that the establishment is now distancing itself from
the Lord Justice Laws judgement, as indicated by the above advice to members of